The article discusses “Scope Of International Relations. The Scope of International Relations in Pakistan. Scope Of International Relations CSS. What is the nature and scope of International Relations?”
Scope Of International Relations
The scope of International Relations has expanded widely over the years since its inception from International Politics as a subject matter of study. Beginning with the mere study of law and diplomatic history among states, today International Relations focuses on various aspects and issues of dynamic nature.
In 1940’s the focus of International Relations scholars shifted to the study of foreign policies of states and various stimuli that designs it. One of the major reasons of this shift was the outbreak of World War II that not only consumed the lives of millions of people but also redesigned the world order. Similarly their failure in both understanding the interconnected events that led to the war and then delay in taking the necessary steps to halt the war, were another two main reasons of the shift of focus of scholars of International Relations in this regard.
The outbreak of national liberation struggles and anticolonial movements in various parts of the world immediately after the end of World War II helped the scholars to understand the changing dynamics of international relations. It revealed to them that imperialism is no more applicable in the world politics, not at least in real terms.
The establishment of United Nations Organization (UNO) during the Second World War also changed the course of study of International Relations. It encompassed the study of relation among states in post-war world and various factors that may affect it.
The Nation State System in International Relations CSS
With the changing dynamics of relations among states, the study of conflict though remained central but the study of cooperation also gained much attention and importance in the course of International Relations. Highlighting various opportunities and areas of cooperation among states are central to the scholars of International Relations to avoid devastating events such as world war.
With the foundation of United Nations Organization (UNO) the establishment of various agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and their role in world politics and socio-economic activities also have attracted the attention of scholars.
Currently international terrorism, hate speech and Islamophobia have mainly become the center of study of International Relations. The sudden rise in international terrorism is a matter of serious concern for politicians and International Relations scholars.
Today the core concepts of International Relations are state sovereignty, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, terrorism, international conflicts, international organizations, international political economy and states foreign policy and war and peace.
Moreover it also covers organized crimes, ecological sustainability, international economic relations, strategic studies and human security and human rights issues etc.
Scope of International Relations in Pakistan
The scope of international relations in Pakistan is promising. With changing regional dynamics and the growing importance of Pakistan in both regional and international politics, the scholars of international relations in Pakistan can pursue a career in both civil and military services as well as in diplomacy, law, business, and media.
Nature Of International Relations
The nature of International Relations has undergone major changes since the end of World War II. Whereas world politics were revolved around Europe and policies and relations among states were designed and conducted by the officials of foreign offices in secrecy, today it is completely different. Today public opinion held an important position in the decision making process in foreign offices.
Another great change observed in the nature of International Relations after the end of World War Two is the proliferation of nuclear power which is has replaced the balance of power with the balance of terror. Similarly these factors have changed the nature of diplomacy as well.